How Great Famine has made us a nationThe Holodomor was a genocide of Ukrainians. Its organizers aimed at eliminating them as a national community. This plan did not go away with the "final solution of the Jewish question" by the Nazis and did not provide for the complete destruction of all Ukrainians. However, according to the creator of the term "genocide" of Raphael Lemkina, his embodiment would mean that "Ukraine will perish in the same way as if all Ukrainians were killed without exception, because it would lose that part of the people who maintained and developed its culture, beliefs, her unifying ideas, which paved her way and gave her a soul, that is, made her a nation, not just a population. " But, paradoxically, the Holodomor not only destroyed the Ukrainian nation. He created it ... It is today, on the fourth Saturday in November, - a day of memory of the victims of the Holodomor.
The term "nation" is used vividly by academics, politicians, journalists, and ordinary inhabitants. Such popularity should provide the same understanding. But in reality it is not. Someone in the nation understands the blood affinity of people whose ancestors live for many centuries in one territory ("both dead, alive and unborn"). Some believe it to be an "imaginary community" that the intellectual elites have invented somewhere in the past century. However, a certain group on the nation turns not only into the answer to the question "Where did we go from the past?" But also the vision of "how and why we want to be together in the future ". Therefore, as Ernest Renan said: "The nation is a daily plebiscite," a constant confirmation: we want and we have for the sake of being together.
At the beginning of the twentieth century. Ukrainians have already been developed by a national group with their elite, represented mainly by the intelligentsia and peasants as the main carriers of identity. Therefore, they succeeded in building their own state at the final stage of the First World War. The defeat of the liberation movement in 1921, the division and occupation of Ukrainian territories significantly slowed down the development of Ukrainians as a modern national community. Slow down but did not stop. The Bolsheviks, in order to maintain domination, made a compromise with the Ukrainian national movement: a quasi-state Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic was created from several former Russian provinces inhabited by Ukrainians. Thus, for the first time in hundreds of years, Ukrainians have achieved their own, albeit narrowed and rather conditional, but the boundaries in which the Ukrainian political nation began to be formed. The ephemeral Soviet borders were filled with national content due to the Ukrainianization of the 1920's. At that time, there was a real cultural boom in art, literature and science. Here came the whole generation of creators, which later, due to a terrible fate, will be called "shot renaissance."
The success of the Ukrainian project in the Ukrainian SSR questioned the implementation of the Soviet project throughout the USSR. The Soviet people, whose creation was the goal of the Kremlin's policy, could not have arisen under the condition of an active revival of the Ukrainian nation. These projects were mutually exclusive, so there was only one left. And if the former could boast of great successes in the cultural sphere, then the second was a political power and a powerful apparatus of coercion. So in the competition, which turned into a confrontation, he won it. The Kremlin had the power to destroy its competitor and took advantage of this opportunity in full.
The Holodomor, the organizers of which aimed at the elimination of the Ukrainian peasantry as the main carrier of Ukrainian identity, combined with repressions against the social elite and the national church, had to put an end to the existence of Ukrainians as a separate national group with their traditions, culture, and shared ideas about the future. This is how the Soviet genocide of Ukrainians described Raphael Lemkin.
And the authorities reached their goal Almost reached. Millions of people were physically destroyed. Whoever survived - suffered irreparable mental losses, which turned them into people, concerned only with their own salvation, unable to unite for the sake of common goals.
Genocide of this kind could only be used in conditions of complete silence. Not only to relieve dying care. The silence of the victims was a continuation of genocide, it further killed those who survived the famine. Converted them into silent and thoughtless animals that did not have the past, and hence the future.
And they were silent. Moreover, they began to forget: so safer for themselves and for their families. Memory could cost a new wave of repressions, which people would not survive. Therefore Ukrainian Ukrainians silently did not notice large group burials in rural cemeteries, empty classes in schools, which did not come dead or unborn babies.
However, Stalin had counted: not all Ukrainians then, in 1933, were under his control. Millions have lived outside the borders of the Ukrainian SSR. The inhabitants of Western Ukraine learned about the tragedy too late to somehow prevent it. And how could they stop the targeted policy of a neighboring state? Then they did everything to draw the world's attention to a terrible crime. In this case, long-standing political rivals joined forces. Creation of help committees, information campaigns of legal political and public institutions, bloody